GB7CIP Amateur Radio International Gateway.

Mail forwarding over AX25, NetRom, IP and SMTP  via HF PACTOR over
Amateur Radio Short Wave bands, VHF, UHF, amprnet wireless and internet links.

G4APL MaintainedUK AX25 BBS Listings 
G4APL MaintainedGB7CIP Forwarding (pdf)

Adobe Reader icon

QRZ callsign lookup:

Data Over Amateur Radio

Since the mid 1970's. Licensed Radio Amateur's have been experimenting and learning about using Real Time Data Over The Amateur Radio Bands. Well before the Internet as you know it is today.

The sort of things that can be achieved today, is using something Similar to Facebook messenger, Internet Relay Chat by using the XCHAT Real Time Chat by connecting to an Amateur Radio Real Time Convers Servers. In addition to the Email and the old InterNetNews services being provided over our AMateur Packet Radio NETwork.

Amateur Radio is an Excellent Hobby to get involved in. Other Radio Amateur's are happy to welcome you and give encouragement as you make friends. 

If you are new to Amateur Radio, you can get brief overview of what it is about by watching the
short RSGB video Amateur Radio in the 21st Century by clicking on this link.

RSGB 20 Things you can do with Amateur Radio pdf document

Amateur Radio overview. Another Interesting article

Amateur Radio WorldWideConvers Networks
Talking to like minded persons. These real time data and Convers servers have been running here in one form
or another since the late 1980's on a network known as the amprnet AMateur Packet Radio NETwork.

What is the AMPRNet? I hear you cry!

This was the original IP AMPRNET MESH (ipip) Network consisting of 700+ connected IP
Amateur Radio network gateways.

For additional AMPRNET information select the TCPIP tab on this website.

We have in the late 1980 early '90's ran network games over the 50MHz, 144MHz and 432MHz IP radio networks.
Some that have been successful Network Games, i.e. Scrabble, Battleships, Connect Four, Monopole

This is in addition to Access the Real Time DX Station Spotting, One to One Contacts. Email and Newsgroup Services.
To achieve all this, requires some understanding how-to Interface the Amateur Radio to a PC Sound Card or Terminal Node Controller
TNC), Data Communication Controller and locate suitable software.

Connect to your local Amateur Radio Network Server providing Real Time Data over Radio.

This is the enjoyment of Amateur Radio
in finding out how things work, carry out tests, solve the challenges (problems) encountered and how all this underpins all the communication technology that you use every minute of the day.

Assisted by
Paul G4APL and other Radio Amateur's that are very keen to help new comers (or Old Timers)  and those returning after retirement to this side of the hobby.
Plus of course due to Covid-19 'Lockdowns', many inactive Radio Amateur's that have gone into their Attics, Lofts, Garden Sheds('Shacks') and dusted off their 'old' Amateur Radio equipment they used 15 to 20 years ago, to get back on the Radio Waves and or data network modes. Paul has been pleased that some of you have contacted him during latter half of 2020 and 2021 for assistance.

You would hopefully get
great satisfaction that you got one part to work, before moving on to the next and whilst increasing your knowledge.

can also be achieved using Internet, Wi-Fi  LAN, HF, VHF, UHF frequencies.

Your learning starts after you have correctly configured your
Amateur Radio transceiver to your PC/Laptop/Raspberry Pi via a Hardware Data Controller, TNC or a Soundcard Interface.

Then getting to grips and understand
AX25, TCPIP and Networking over the Radio uhf vhf or hf, mobile phone, Wi-Fi and Internet.

More information can be found under TCPIP Notes

Operating HF AX25 APRS  Robust 600baud. G4APL is active part time using his SCS PTCIIex and TS2000e on
this mode on 10.147.30MHz USB (UpperSideBand).The SCS PTCIIex has R600bd included as one of the packet modes (Baud R600).

To quote from their website:-
"The goal of Robust-Packet-Network to make Robust Packet Radio
more popular within the HF-APRS community and to strengthen the network".

For frequencies and background information please refer to

Kenwood Transceivers
How to Configure your TS2000e over the ax25 connected protocol  to access your Local Packet Radio Node
Paul G4APL enjoys using his TS2000e sub-receiver on 2metres 1200baud and 70cm 9600baud Radio data speed to access the local packet radio node. Accessing the world wide Amateur Radio Packet Network. 

At the same time using the Main Receiver on HF SSB, PACTOR, 300baud, Robust600baud Packet Radio using a suitable data controller via the rear interfaces.  (or you could connect a 'soundcard datamodem' solution)

(October 2021 Paul was taught how to digipeat signals via NA1SS (ARISS) ISS Space Stations APRS digipeater on 144.825Mhz and make a few two way contacts via his sub transmitter/receiver/tnc while the main receiver was active on the HF bands just using a horizontal 5 element beam (not ideal)).
Software used was PaKet62 as a terminal running on a win7pro laptop.
Note: The ISS Space Station location can be downloaded from GB7CIP Linfbb Server Satellites Database
Log on and enter the following  five commands
note  ISS=83 as at 6.11.2021.

Have you got a Kenwood TS2000e that you are not using to the FULL?? Why not join us!!!

Describes How To Configure Kenwood TS2000e for AX25 Packet Radio (*** updated March 2021)
How To Configure the Kenwood THD7e THD72e TM-D700 for AX25 Packet Radio  and THD74e
How To Configure the Kenwood TMD710 for AX25 Packet Radio by David Ranch KI6ZHD
using the built in TNC (Terminal Node Controller) TASCO RADIO MODEM using Windows XP, Windows 7 Pro, Windows 8.1,
Windows 10, UBUNTU Linux and the PaKet 6.2 Packet Program.G4APL's How To Configure DOSBOX Notes
And now Alpha4 underr Windows 10 ***.

Of course you could  use your favorite Packet AX25 program application.
Paul G4APL has also run DOS JNOS (IP over AX25) using the built in TASCO Radio Modem
at 1200baud and 9600baud RF radio speeds on 70cms. 1200baud on 2metres.
more details can be found on the tcpip_notes web page section 'k'.
Remember to set MAXFRAME 1 and PACLEN 255 due to limited internal buffers in these radios,

Raspberry Pi
A lot of Radio Amateur's are now using Raspberry Pi's with legacy TNC e.g. {PacCom Tiny2, BSX2, KPC, AES)
or using multiple soundcard software drivers in place of the hardware TNC's and Data Controllers for the new data modes.

Paul G4APL has set up an experimental Linux Node APLRPI (APple and Raspberry Pie)
using his Raspberry PI B 256MB Ram (August 2012) base on information from the following web sites.

In early 2016 this now using a Raspberry Pi 3b and the RPI1b is now running as an Apache2 web server.

Note: This setup was used as his temporary Node G4APL-2 in November 2014 on 144.9375MHz.
Connected via a USB<>Serial cable to a PacCom TNC200(with JKISS prom) and Kenwood TR751e.
Linked to GB7CIP-5 main Linux server via an Ethernet amprnet tunnel to access the main AX25/AMPR network gateway.

Note: re Serial connection.  As another Sysop had issues and confusion.
Raspberry-Pi | USB<>SERIAL:D9Male | Back-Back<D9>Adaptor | D9Mail-Straight-Through-cable-D9Female | Paccom-Tiny2 TNC

Paul also replaced the standard TNC2 Eprom with a dedicated JKISS prom configured with his callsign CWID
Save him having to switch the standard TNC software into KISS mode first. Though you can run a script to switch the TNC in standard TNC2 mode to KISS Mode during configuring the  kiss interface the TNC is connected to.

Amateur Radio using a Raspberry Pi

Bernard F6BVP Raspberry Pi installation how-to related Web site updated February 2019

LinFBB F6FBB BBS LinBBS project

Or download the (Latest version) entering the following command which G4APL currently uses

missing bash interpreter
There have been some reports that some systems do not have the bash interpreter installed.
Quick fix edit the file and change bash to sh and rerun the script.

Then copy and paste the contents of the script in to notepad/text editor (landscape) and save as 13 January 2019 version can be found on the above website

To find out your Maidenhead Locator; you can use this TOOL

.Chris G8XXM has kindly supplied the following notes to assist those
that require a Linux Client to access the many linux Nodes in operation.
Including the host gb7cip run by Paul G4APL.
Select the following link to download the file of instructions

 G4APL Build Blog
G4APL has updated his 20 plus Step by Step documents and during Beta test of the revise build. He found the Dependency Modules missing, that are required to be installed before executing this script. Also symlink(s) not created. (9.2.2019) on the new build install of (G4APL-7 APLNOD) Ubuntu Desktop 32bit 14.04.5 LTS with kernel
This test system and another two of Paul's UK BBS SysOp's Beta testers. Tested this system following G4APL's Stage by Stage build documents were successful.

Note: Ubuntu 14.4 Has now reached End of Life! No further software updates, downloads. (Catch 22 situation) and is Paul's STILL RECOMMENDS the build using the 3.13 Kernel
for the new comer and those with less Linux experience. It just works.

IMPORTANT: Please read Kernel version "Warning still valid" notes further down this page.
i.e. (The ax25 kernel code is STILL BROKEN In the latest Kernels as at 31.12.2021
after all these years as Paul understands it, the two group of Linux kernel developers involved
disagree to any changes to the code.)

You can check your current kernel version with command uname -an

G4APL Paul current testing blog follows:- (lots of pain and challenges to resolve)

6.12.2020 21:15hrs G4APL-7 To continue to use the multiple network/interfaces legacy interface names
Paul can confirm that documented Step 1  and Step 2 was required on his system as detailed at the end of the UBUNTU_BLOG fixed the problem.  His test development system now starts up using the Legacy Network Interface names eth#.
He will need to revisit his documentation (lots of editing of supporting configuration files) and further testing when a 'lot' time is available later this year or next!!.

Though this system build is still locking up running on different hardware..

23.11.2020 G4APL-7 A possible solution get around this has been located on the Ubuntu Support website to be evaluated and tested when he has time..

16.11.2020 G4APL-7 Booted up on this system, found that there had been a Ubuntu 18.04 update.
This Packet Radio system networking no longer works
As the network interfaces have been automatically updated from using the legacy network/interfaces method eth0, eth1, eth3 interfaces to the new NETPLAN method using interface names esp0s0, esp1s0, esp2s0.  being incompatible with the current legacy network and current security applications being use,
Have found no way so far after spending many hours investigating, how to get back to the eth0, eth1, eth2 interface names.
Expect he will need to restore back to a Ubuntu 16.04 image and working 4.1,52 kernel

10.4.2020  This session froze up at 10.4.2020 05hr.01min uptime  90hrs 48min conversed process 100% cpu
9.4.2020 G4APL-7 Development Test system (running on duplicate hardware to GB7CIP main server is used as a backup) UBUNTU18-04-4 Running Patched Kernel and installed the missing libreadline6 and libreadline6-dev from the Ubuntu 16.04 Package. These have been omitted from the UBUNTU18-04 Build which only supports libreadline5, libreadline5-dev and libreadline7 and libreadline7-dev. So any applications that use -6 -6dev will fail to compile or run. As was the case system locked up with conversd 99.7% CPU loop frozen system.

Recompiled the dl6sau conversd-saupp. Resulted in no further freeze ups. G4APL-7 Packet/node system has been running for over 74 hours at the time of writing these notes. Previously would freeze up in under two hours running time. Requiring a cold power off/on system restart.

1.4.2020 The Bad news 18.04 (19.04) has a bad history of system Freezing related to system going idle, screen save, reported in 2018 and still an issue with Kernel 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 according to search engine results. Have not found the answer. (Recovery is to power system OFF/ON) Requires more real-time monitoring with the 'top' command looking for clues. (bingo!!)

Reverted back to using Kernel 4.1.52-040152 working 100% with Ubuntu 18.04.04 LTS
and no issues with using the unpatched ax25_subr.c module

22.3.2020 G4APL-7 Has now taught himself following notes found on the Internet, patched the source Kernel 32bit Ubuntu 18.04.4 LTS bionic Kernel 4.15.0-91-generic running kernel. No Interface hang ups, been running 26 hours. Before unpatched Kernel failed in under 2 hours.

14.3.2020 Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS Kernel 4.1.52 working 100% no issues
downloaded this Kernel and Installed.

11.5.2019 15:00 G4APL-7 currently testing Desktop 32bit Ubuntu 18.04.2 LTS generic Kernel.

Kernel >=-4.6.4 that is allegedly to have supposed to have had the
AX.25 Close socket connection on session fix applied.
During upgrade do not delete your old 3.13.0.### fullback kernel, or the grub and ????-50 or any other non standard files that you have created. When requested by the upgrade process.
Take a disk Image first.

11.5.2019 16:50 G4APL confirms that this KERNEL 4.15.0-48 DOES NOT WORK in, out NetRom and ax25 Connects FAIL.
Exactly as detailed previously further down this page on 16 Feb 2019. Connect Interface call-ssid work.
Now defaulting back to the Kernel previously saved.
End G4APL Build Blog

G4APL uses the latest 'unofficial supported source' on his installations using (K4GBB, F6BVP, VE7FET). Which downloads, compiles and installs the Linux AX25 code.
(that was based on Charlie's K4GBB original script)
Leaving you, the System owner to then manually edit all the default configurations files. Then they can install any further features required after first testing connectivity.

I am sure that you did take a back up copy of your original /etc/ax25 or /usr/local/etc/ax25 directory and subdirectories,  and saved it elsewhere on your system.
Saves your working configuration files being over written.
NOTE: G4APL is now using from February 2019 Refer to comments above.

Using his Linux experience on his main (G4APL)GB7CIP Linux Hard Disk based system, operational since 1994 and his G4APL's  Raspberry PI development test systems since 2013.

Paul G4APL has been able to assist other UK Radio Amateurs, who request his help (guidance) and assistance with their Raspberry Pi's (or Desktop PC) Linux installation of all the required AX25 software source code.

Learning Linux, editing files, configuring, compiling, installing, networking, debugging, testing as part of your 'Self Learning, Experimentation'  and assisting in the Regenerating NET44 Radio IP network activity in the London Home Counties area. (This also includes AX25 NetRom and other services running over this network) As you work through each stage.
This will require MANY HOURS of your time and 'coffee'.

Much Easier if you are able to use the vi or joe editors to edit files.
Paul has had some serious system Unix server failure in the past (1990's) using
text screen editors. With the editors replacing <TAB> with five <spaces>

Linux system by default is set up with seven screen sessions
These can be access by using the following key sequences
<ALT><F1> TO <ALT><F7> on some systems <CTRL><ALT><F1> etc.
Therefore, you could have running in each session for example
Preferably on another system and not the system running your Node
<ALT><F1> Administration session
<ALT><F2> Telnet Terminal Client
<ALT><F3> LinFBB Remote SysOp Client
<ALT><F4> LinPac(ket) Radio Client
<ALT><F5> DXCluster Client connection via the Amprnet
<ALT><F6> WWConvers Client connected via the Amprnet
<ALT><F7> Graphical User Interface (GUI)

LinPac Packet Radio Terminal
G4APL LinPac Notes experience using LinPac by David Ranch KI6ZHD, OK2JBG and their support team.

Linux Direwolf Soundcard TNC Emulator
Direwolf is a software "soundcard" modem/TNC and APRS encoder/decoder and many other modes.
for more information refer to the website.
G4APL has no first hand experience of this though highly regarded by other Linux users accessing the Amateur Packet Radio network using Radios and usb soundcard audio interfaces suitably adapted..
MAY 2019. G4APL now has a Linux user, using the above soundcard software.
Who has full 44Net IP over AX25 connections to the rest of the 'amprnet' world via GB7CIP 432.675MHz or 433.625MHz UHF interface.
This is over a 20km path with Paul's assistance and advice with the NET44 networking and testing. And of course AX25 connections. This experiment continues.

UPDATE 8.6.2022 G4APL has assisted a system SysOP running Direwolf at 9600bd and successfully connected to one
of GB7CIP 9600bd 432.675/439.950MHz Interfaces decoded(Send and received) by Tiny2/NB96 interfaces accessing the node and downloading text.
(Details to follow as still in development)

Note:  RE ISP Supplied Domestic Routers.
Just a few comments.

'We' have found most of these routers do not allow the 'Forwarding of Protocol 4 (ipencap)
i.e. No RAW setting that you are able to enter 4.

They only allow Protocol 6(TCP) and 17(UDP)  (TCP/UDP) in their supplied routers/firewall configurations.
Which prevents setting up the amprnet IPIP tunnels.

Alternatives are peering with a partner using a UDP Tunnel which is safer than
Pointing all 'your'  Live Internet data to a device acting as a DMZ  (Demilitarized Zone) on your Home Network LAN.

Where you need some expertise in installing and configuring firewalls to protect your internal network (LAN, Wi-Fi), amprnet tunnel internet links and radio ip links. 
From the continuous probes to all the common port services by the 'bandits and bots'.
That are open on your LAN and system.

URONODE released by Brian N1URO
Note: Brian N1URO became a Silent Key 4.1.2022. RIP MY Friend de Paul G4APL

This is a User friendly front-end interface.  uronode and axmail makes calls to the back-end supporting
separate processes, services that you need to install and configure, compile the AX25libs, tools and apps first.
Then use this application to give a friendly front-end user access.

March 2017  Brian N1URO has kindly created two installation scripts
to do the above for either systemd(jessie) or sysv(Wheezy) Linux based systems

Both packages are available from ftp server at
in directory   /pub/hamradio/packet/ and you will see the install scripts for systemd and sysv..
These scripts should make your life easier to get-up and running your Linux packet system.

N1URO distributions for Raspberry Pie and standard Linux.
Fairly straight forward to setup, by following the README files.
On a test system G4APL was only interested in the AX25 NETROM IP, AXMAIL(amprnet) and Serial
side of this system at this time.
Uronode  version  used 2.12 release  at 7.2020

Once you have downloaded the required Distribution and
extracted the files. That's another skill.

Procedure G4APL uses to decode the URONODE tgz image on a Windows PC
Note the original Linux file is first run through tar and then bzip. so we need to decode this
file twice to produced the image file to be input to Win32DiskImager.
You will also need a copy of 7-Zip 16.02 open source program.

After downloading the image file 2014-12-05-URONode-wheezy.tz2
image file 2016-06-12 uronode-jessie-RPI3.tar.gz
using a Microsoft Windows based machine.
This file will fit on an SDmicro 16GB memory card.
includes create and README text files. 

Extracting the image
Using 7-Zip with the downloaded file detailed above as input. Will produce the
extracted file
2014-12-05-URONODE-wheezy size 3872260KB

Then run 7-Zip again on the previous extracted file above.

You will see and Raspberry Pi directory
extract the README and the
2014-12-05-URONode-wheezy.img files


load 7-Zip
(pass 1) input file uronode-jessie-RPI3.tar.gz
(pass 2) input file/directory uronode-jessie-RPI3.tar

You will end up with directory rpi3-image in which you will find three files
create and README and the image file uronode-jessie-RPI3.img

This image is based on a SanDisk 16GB Micro SD card provided with the RPI3-B
sold at the 2016 Dayton Hamfest. Run the create script (if the sd card is on a Linux machine)
then edit the files in /etc/ax25, /etc/postfix, and also /usr/local/bin/ax25. Look for MYCALL
or mycall (upper/lower case) and remove ALL <>'s, and replace MYCALL or
CALLSIGN as it appears (upper/lower case) with your callsign.

Though Paul stardardised using 16GB SDMicro class 10 cards, allowing more file system space for logs and
other additional features that may be required.

Insert your SDMicro memory card in to your PC/Laptop card reader, or USB Stick adaptor.

Using Win32DskImager which should detect the drive containing the memory card.
Changed Save as file type to *.img
Select file above, and SAVE
Select Write

Confirm overwrite YES

Safely release the SD card from the PC.
and removed from card reader/writer

SD card into RPI
Connect Keyboard and HDLC Screen(in my case a TV)
(I modify my /boot/config.txt to use a 19inch LCD screen via
an HDLC<>VGA adaptor - one Paul use to log on to the system,
when Paul is not accessing it remotely using putty)

Extract from README file
You will need your login info. It is:
Username: pi
Password: uronode  (Important, change this when you have logged in)

When you boot this image once created, follow the instructions on the screen
to get your node running.

You should be able to get it (basically set-up) up within a couple of hours  or so (10 minutes) time.
The information you'll need can be found in
/usr/local/bin/README as well.

Raspberry Pi build using jessi-lite experiment

Warning still valid!! 17-7-2016<=>13.8.2019 it has been reported "that the AX25 Stack processes are broken. Understand there is no fix for this on the horizon!! Other than rebooting your system.
Blah Blah [snip] raspberry pi" (The ax25 code is STILL BROKEN In the latest Kernals as at 17.7.2021)
But, also note that *any other Linux* kernel above 4.1 has more holes in it for the ax25 stack than does a golf
course. (Linux system locks kernel error up requiring a reboot)
For now you may wish to consider downgrading to a 3.x" (also applies to debian, Ubuntu)

16 February 2019 Paul G4APL has now had first hand experience. When a plea for his help came in. 
This system had upgraded to Kernel 4.4.0 and 'we' proved that:-
ax25 failing to connect to ax25
ax25 fails link
ax25 connectivity. Not releasing closing links and Not accepting inbound NetRom Links
Manual uplinks/downlinks to/from the 'ax25d.conf Interface' bound to uronode binary worked.
Interrupting the GRUB menu during 'boot up'  we were able to set the only old 13.19.#.32?? Kernel as default. 
(If this system did not have the old 13.#.#.# kernel previously (last) used still on the disk before the upgrade, would have required the previous Linux system to be rebuilt and reinstall of the AX25 build and reconfiguration, or a restore from the last disc image backup. You did take one didn't you? If one was taken before the upgrade).
To get this system working on UBUNTU 16.04 LTS again using the old Kernel 13.#.#.# with no further issue. or (Reinstall Kernel 4.1.52 Recommended)

UBUNTU AX25 IP 32bit BUILD (Recommended by G4APL)
For Ubuntu AX25 installation (LATEST IS NOT ALWAYS THE GREATEST due to broken ax25 kernel module)

Use Ubuntu Trusty 14.04.1 LTS image Kernel  3.13.0.# (Currently3.13.0.165)
GB7CIP BEEN RUNNING On Kernel 13. UBUNTU13 or 14 Since 2014, and
Slakware Kernel 1999-2013/4.
Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS (Trusty Tahr) link to 14.04.1 LTS Images g4apl is using Desktop 32bit as requires 24x7hrs reliability. (Many reports of 64Bit causing system hang-ups)
Runs the Ubuntu software UPDATE around every three months after first imaging the hard drive with the Clonzilla application to a remote system storage.

Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS image installs the new Hardware enablement Stack (!!!!!!)
and  Ubuntu 14.04.5 LTS image installs Kernel 4.4 from the 16.04LTS release!! 
(Refer to G4APL-7 comments further up this page) (Reinstall Kernel 4.1.52 Recommended)

Paul G4APL is using 4.1.17 and 4.1.19-v7+ with success on his Raspberry PI's -4 -5 -6. Packet nodes with and without TNC, Radios Attach using USB<>Serial adaptors in Kiss Mode.
Raspberry Pi Jessi-lite 4.1 2016-03-18-download site (284MB)
Raspberry PI Jessie 4.1 2016-03-18-download site (1.3GB)

e.g. To generate the .img file
Run  7-Plus (Extract) in Test mode  on which should display
Packeted Size 139760088 (1333MB)
Files 1
Size 4033871872 bytes (3847MB)
There are no errors

Then re run the 7-Plus command Extract WITHOUT Test mode selected to generate the img file
a new subdirectory will be created e.g. \2016-03-18-raspbian-jessie containing file image file
2016-03-18-rasbian-jessie.img size 3,939,323KB IMG File (e.g. 4GB)
Then input this into Win32DiskImager and output to unformatted SD Card
Remember to use Win32DiskImager to expand these files to your SD card (e.g. 16GB)
DO NOT DO apt-get dis-upgrade after installation, otherwise you will find you are running 4.4 kernel broken AX25 stack.

1) Raspberry Pi 1GB Version 2 Model B
2) jessie-lite kernel 4.1.19-v7 Raspberry kernel Pi image
2a) amended /boot/config.txt to use 'VGA' (15 pin) 19 inch LCD screen adapter
re Newer Black HDMI Input to VGA Adapter Converter for PC Laptop, Raspberry PI

Add the following code at the end of /boot/config.txt
if you want to use the above adaptor with a VGA(15 pin) interface LCD Screen
Boot settings for Flatron VGA Monitor
# 1024 * 768
# note hdmi_mode=16 is the display resolution at 1024 x 768

3) install the unofficial ax25 source code
using  updAX25.script
refer to web site detailed earlier on this page.

4) installed Brain's N1URO uronode-2.12 Source

5) Now just need to configure the configuration files
as well as use the 'new' N1URO's systemD config files for the
services that Brian created. Saved a lot of 'learning pain'.

5a) Paul's G4APL AX25 configurations files

Configured and working now, proved that it can be done
G4APL-4:APLPIE Node when online.

Have also rebuilt G4APL-5:APLRPI node
ax25 udp vpn via WiFi/3G broadband gateway

also G4APL-6 APLDEV node
is configured as an amprnet ipip encap gateway for testing.
The RPI memory card would not cope with the full 24x7 hours security logging required by G4APL
that is operational on the main gb7cip server.

Caterham Broadband-Hamnet HSMM MESH 13cm 2.4GHZ Wi-Fi HamNet (Amateur Radio) Project
(These project notes for informstion)
Since 2000 Paul G4APL has been experimenting on and off with
his Wi-Fi Hubs in WDS bridging configuration. One of which is a remote 'router'.

Paul has replaced this equipment and started experimenting in using the Amateur Radio  Broadband-HamNet version 1 (High Speed Multimedia) HSMM MESH software with suitable Wi-Fi Routers and operate them in the 13cm 2.412GHz  Amateur Radio Band.(Wi-Fi Channel1).

It is proposed (now operational) to use the Broadband-Hamnet Version1 HSMM MESH software on the routers now known as MESH nodes as a 'network cloud' to connect back to the 44Net Amateur Radio Caterham Hub (
East Surrey amprnet network

The Nodes will show up on the Mesh network as GB7CIP-2441A and GB7CIP-2441B.

A third and forth node connected to a laptop, will be set-up for experimenting as a remote user with beams and plate aerials.
Node ID G4APL-244A

The Firewalls at gb7cip are configured only to route on Source and Destination address
in the and AMateurPacketNETwork (amprnet). To ensure only Radio Amateurs are communicating over the Infrastructure.

i.e. from Mesh Address to Address 44.131.###.### 44.131.###.### at the MESH Node firewalled gateway.

This will allow connections to any Radio Amateur active on the amprnet via the 'tunnels' at GB7CIP gateway.

A Radio Amateur that has a suitable router and a laptop/PC.
Installed the Broadband-Hamnet Version1 HSMM MESH software on the Wi-Fi Router.
(Currently using the default software configuration)

Confirmed that his/her Wi-Fi Broadband-Hamnet HSMM MESH node can see other Nodes in the
Caterham On The Hill area can see GB7CIP-244B Node (when) which is now operational.

You may need to experiment with Vertical Polarisation Wi-Fi Beams or panel hi-gain aerials. As the aerials
used are vertical polarization.

Anyone in the Caterham Area, Old Coulsdon area (high up) that are Interested in experimenting please make contact.
The more Amateur Radio Mesh Nodes the better for the experiments.

Paul expects to start configuring, testing (experimenting) from October 2013 to see if this set-up
works as proposed. (Project Completed End of 2019)

G8PZT's Linux XRouter Network Access Point XRPI
15.4.2019 G4APL was recently ask to assist in an installation.  He has now got this dedicated router running a network access point (with it's own TCP/IP AX25 NetRom stack) running on his own network.
Using the Unofficial ax25 Source code suite as another 'challenge to solve on a test system Raspberry Pi'

Running ax25 NetRom and IP amprnet (AmateurRadoPacketNETwork) NET44 via UDP tunnel via GB7CIP's International Gateway on a Raspberry Pi v3.
(Waste of a P3, could use and earlier Raspberry Pi as dedicated router)

Following his Stage0 and Stage1, Stage16 instructions (in development) and the script.
Work in progress. Vertical learning curve as he is not an XRouter person. Networking sorted.
Network Security Issues needs to be resolved. (still reading through the documentation for clues
xrpi needs some amendments to meet IMHO G4APL Network Security concerns).

In the past G4APL has been involved with networking of XRouter routers, running on DOS or DRDOS for
decade or so remotely in a 'Shed or Cabin' providing reliable AX25 IP and NetRom routing,

New Packet Radio  (Master Client Network Infrastructure)
F4HDK Guillaume's NPR (New Packet Radio) System
new firmware with 56kBaud and 120kBaud
NPR (system still being developed)

New modulations (11, 12, 20, 21) for lower datarates, lower bandwidth.
Symbol rates: 56kS/s (complies with FCC) and 120kS/s. You now have the choice between 9 modulation parameters, in order to adapt to lots of situations and needs.

Frequency range extended to 420-450MHz instead of previously 430-440MHz

G4APL has read feedback of testing going on in the USA
mode 22, 270KHz wide bandwidth proving 220kbps pf data bandwidth
there is a mode running at 500kbps
It would be more useful if this system was MASTER<radio>MASTER
and not only MASTER to Clients. 

For MASTER to MASTER Linking over Radio on the same frequency instead of using the Internet as the backbone network.
Otherwise we are stuck with yet another isolated 'repeater' with a couple of user clients. IMHO de G4APL

Guillaume's documentation can be found here

Also more New Packet Radio experimentation information can be found on Mark's G7LTT/NI2O website
This is an interesting project de g4apl
updated 16.6.2019

Broadband-Hamnet background information
can be found on the following web site

Also another interesting project using the Raspberry Pi as a Broadband-HamNet Node
Info about the HSMM-Pi project
can be found on the following website
HSMM-Pi Blog
Paul G4APL SysOP GB7CIP 20.9.2013

Hello All

Follow up to my previous update.
I have progressed faster that I had expected, since I wrote the original
message a few days ago.

The two Cisco WRT54GL routers have been 'flashed' with the Broadband-Hamnet
Version 1 software. Configured as mesh nodes. for more information.

Both running as an experimental test setup.
Worked out the required networking via my external firewalls and the gb7cip servers.

Laptop connected the 'local hamnet gateway' LAN interface.

Proved that this laptop can connect out to the amprnet
(AmateurRadioPacketNetwork) NET44 IP Network.

Connected and accessed GB7CIP IRC Convers Server, AX25 Network Node, BBS and Web Server running Also proved that I can connect to other 44Net amprnet Hosts.

So far so good. Amateur Radio via 54Mbit Wi-Fi Links... Now just need more
locals to join in and add mesh nodes.

Next test is to try it from a third mesh node (need to get another router and
configure it first) and carry the same tests as a remote Mesh User coming via an intermediate mesh node on the external aerial..

Update 5.10.2013
Couple of Gotha's

On the Laptop/PC connected to the Mesh Lan Port
Ensure that the Wi-Fi is turned off, as that had a default gateway pointing the wrong
way and overriding the link to the remote Mesh Nodes.

Also check other static LAN network setting for default gateway pointing in the wrong direction.
On a Windows machine the command route print will display the current routing table.

If you have connected to the Caterham Amateur Radio Broadband Hamnet mesh
you could try a test and ping to see if the Gateway is currently active and get
the following response>

e.g. ping

Pinging [] with 32 bytes of data:

Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255
Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255
Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255
Reply from bytes=32 time<1ms TTL=255

Gateway across the mesh to the Web server using your favorite web browser web server

Use telnet program like TTYLink, Putty  to telnet node port 23 and BBS on port 6300.
Xchat to port 6667 (IRC interface) chat server

As well as other amprnet address via the amprnet gateway are reachable
during this experiment.
Access to other Internet addresses are locked down by a dedicated firewall.

The  experiment continues when there is some spare time to play
Hope the above is of interest

Paul G4APL SysOP GB7CIP 7.10.2013

Hi Again another update
Have been testing over recent months the radio paths with another 'mobile Mesh Node) to see how far the 2.4GHz  goes over the local area Not that far.
Though we are in the progress of adding hi-gain aerials to our systems, so that we can experiment further and extend the range.

Oh yes, forgot to mention, if you do connect, there is a WWW web server active (when it is switched on) within the Caterham Hamnet Mesh.
Which will be useful to you for testing connection the connection to our systems

Paul G4APL SysOP
 GB7CIP 23.3.2014

Broadband-Hamnet version 3
Wi-Fi 2.4GHz

Updated the three WRT54GL routers to version 3.1.0
As I had a spare hour to play with this.
Paul G4APL SysOP 10.6.2015

Installed and removed ngircd IRC Chat server package on the Mesh node.
Found it incompatible with the main WorldWideConvers Servers run at  Also found this
incompatible with colrconv Linux covers client.

Installed Ham chat package. A simple standalone chat server visible from the GB7CIP Broadband Hamnet Mesh nodes.
Paul G4APL
17.7.2016 16:50

Raspberry PI Mesh Node HSMM-Pi project Version 0.4.0
G4APL-244B built and running on 256MB September 2012 B version
and using and EDIMAX EW-7811Un Wi-Fi nano USB Adapter. As an experiment.

As Paul did not have a USB Wi-Fi adaptor for use with external aerial.
At least it proved the software installation.

Following Scott Kidder's instructions detailed at the following website which
was straight forward to understand, after having experience with setting up the WRT54GL based BroadbandHamnet Mesh Nodes using Network SSID BroadbandHamnet-20-v3

This mesh node lists the IP addresses of the three WRT54GL mesh node (not the hostnames) and connects to them successfully. SSID set to BroadbandHamnet-20-v3.
Though unable to connect back to the Raspberry Pi  Mesh node. And not picking ip the Service advertised from GB7CIP-244A at the present time.

The WRT54GL Mesh nodes are not showing this G4APL-244B raspberry Pi node in their Mesh Tables
hence does not know how to connect back.
So appears to be an incompatibility or misconfiguration issue or the USB Wi-Fi adaptor chipset may not compatible running in Adhoc mode.

Need to get this resolved, before experimenting with vtun.
Paul G4APL SysOP 13.6.2015 23:45

Now connected up an ALFA AWUS036NH USB Wi-Fi adaptor to the Raspberry Pi HSMM-Pi
system now working as required. 
Just connected up this Wi-Fi adaptor, no software changes at this time.

Updated the Raspberry Pi  software using the Raspberry Pi original Model B Sept2012
and HSMM-Pi version 0.4.0 now running on a Raspberry Pi Version 2 Model B.
The plan is to run this off a battery to enable portable operation.

The original Raspberry Pi 256MB Ram Model B (Sept 2012) running Apache2 web server has now replaced
the Vista Laptop. T
hat was running the webserver for access via the Broadband Hamnet giving detail of access
to amprnet server.

The second Raspberry Pi Version 2 Model B will be use for experimenting with Packet Radio configuration SDRam cards that have also had their operating systems updated to 'Jessie' as part of upgrading to the Version 2 B boards.
Paul G4APL SysOP 8.1.2016 21:20

Additional Information
Other Radio Amateurs are running their own Voice over IP, Video Servers and  Communications Networks..
As well as using this type of system at their field day contests sites or other portable activities, Emergency Communications.

Raspberry Pi SDR (Software Defined Receiver) Server
Next background project with a Raspberry Pi Version 3 Model B
Jessie Full image installation..

Is to build a SDR (Software Defined Receiver) server. Using one of G4APL'a DVB DAB FM dongle, currently used with a HDSDR or SDRSharp Version 1170 clients. Believe version 1360 is the last XP supported) version With the addition Ham It Up Converter 1.3 hardware PCB.

Now have the SDR server running on the Raspberry Pi (RPi) using the DVB T RTL2838UHIDIR DVB-T+DAB+FM Dongle (purchased off eBay previously and Ham It Up Converter 1.3 hardware PCB) and TCP remote access to the RPi server from a Window XPpro Laptop or Windows 7 Pro Laptop running SDRSharp listening to Radio2.

G4APL followed ZR6AIC Anton's excellent notes as a basis in configuring
this remote SDR software and now running on his Raspberry Pi Version 3 Model B with Jessie-full
Saved him reinventing the 'wheel'. Video was very helpful.

Remote access over Internet working with SDRSharp. As a Client connection to the Raspberry Pi SDR Server. 
Use the Raspberry Pi V3 Model B built in Wi-Fi interface to a Wi-Fi Connected Laptop via a Wi-Fi Router.
Found the audio breaking up.  Due to the lack of ADSL uplink bandwidth.

Aerial was a 3 element beam or a vertical aerial. So proving that the Dongle and UP Converter works. (Before being connected to the Raspberry Pi V3 for further testing).

Further update
Now have the Ham It Up Converter 1.3 working with the 'Dongle' providing the Intermediate Frequency (IF) ( Approx. 125MHz -125.000.000). With SDRSharp and HDSDR SDR Windows software clients, tuning around the HF 7MHz and 14MMHz and SW broadcast bands and WWV frequency standard transmissions on 5.000MHz or 10.000MHz AM on a Windows 7pro and WinXP laptops.

Have learnt more about SDRSharp client and configured for remote access to the Raspberry PI SDR server (single session).

Now set up with a 6metre vertical dipole when only using the Dongle in bypass mode, or a 5 band HF trapped vertical or multiples dipoles when in up converter mode.

Listened on 198kHz (long wave) Medium and Short Wave broadcast bands, Amateur Radio frequency bands 160,80,40,15,10metre and any other frequencies.

Modes NBFM, WFM, DSB,LSB,USB,AM,CW (not used Raw)

April 2019 Installed sdrsharp-x86 v1.0.0.1700 on Win7Pro 64bit Desktop and Laptop with excellent results on  MF HF VHF with TCP connection to the Raspberry Pi SDR server detailed previously with the relevant aerial.

SDR Receiver project Update on the above
5.5.2019 created new SDR server build on an SDcard using
kernel 4.14.98-v7+ #1200 SMP Tue Feb 12 20:27:48 GMT 2019 armv7l GNU/Linux
and Spyserver. Accessed remotely over the Local Network using SDRSharp client version 1700 running on win7pro operating systems.
With the current hardware installation described above using the 'Spyserver networking' hardware option.

Surprised how easy it was to get going using the previous sdr experience gained.
Just worked.

The experiment and learning continues.

Laptop/PC plus Soundcard Interface to Radio Amateur HF/VHF/Radio Transceiver Packet PACTOR mode 1

If you have not got hold of an old Hardware Terminal Node Controller (TNC)
(There must be hundreds on shelves not being used today that were used in the 1980,1990's)

You could try using your PC/Laptop Soundcard plus a soundcard/Radio Interface
G8MNY's home made Soundcard interface is an example.

MULTIPSK (Free software)
Includes Pactor mode P1 that can be used to connect to GB7CIP HF PACTOR  and Experimental HF PACKET interfaces.
As well as the standard Packet Radio  mode 1200baud for use GB7CIP VHF, UHF 1200bd frequencies.

There are plenty of other PC soundcard solutions out there on the Internet that you could use to access GB7CIP/MB7NCR supported services.

Paul G4APL SysOP
Reviewed 1.10.2023